October 31, 1517: Martin Luther nails his Disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences to the Castle Church of Wittenberg. Commonly known today as “The 95 Theses”, Luther had no intention of causing the religious and political upheaval that resulted from his writing. Henry VIII of England, appalled by what Luther wrote, issued a strong rebuttal. A grateful Pope bequeathed to Henry the title “Defender of the Faith”. Henry VIII retained the title after his own break with the Catholic Church almost 20 years later. It remains one of the titles of every English and British monarch after Henry VIII except Mary I, a devout Roman Catholic.