Clergy-Penitent Privilege Not Restricted to Formally Ordained Ministers

A Kansas federal district court ruled that the clergy-penitent privilege is not limited to only those formally ordained as ministers. The government argued that the privilege did not apply to communications between Angel Dillard and the inmates she ministered to in a Kansas county jail. The court ruling in her favour stated that many programs in today's modern society are operated by the volunteer services of lay ministers and would not be able to carry on if the privilege applied only to formally ordained ministers.

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